1561. Conrad Gesner, Historiae Animalium (published in five volumes, commencing in 1551). Four hounds and a water-dog: the only image of dogs in this first edition; the water-dog portion of this image forms the headpiece for Finders...; please note that this familiar image has a complicated bibliographical history. Also see: Ash, plate 31.
See a digital copy of Historiae Animalium as of 8 August 2011.
1570. Caius. See Finders... for the water-dog section of Caius' letter to Gesner, included by the latter his masterwork. This letter was also published as the entire text of the first dog book ever to be printed: Johannes Caius, Joannis Caii Britanni de Canibus Britannicus, Liber Unus. De Rariorum Animalium, et Stirpium Historia, Liber Unus. De Libris Propriis, Liber Unus. Iam Priumu Excusi (London, 1570). Since St. John's, Newfoundland was first settled in 1583, we may infer that Caius gives us a vignette of the water-dogs which were among the first settlers (see ...guns).
Here's a digital text-only version of Caius's De Canibus Britannicis (Of Englishe Dogges) as of 8 August 2011.
1583. Christofel Froschouwer. "Great German Animal Book...Wasserhund is almost identical to that used by Gervase Markham." Hayes Blake Hoyt, "Origin and History of the Poodle", The Poodle Showcase, December, 1964, p. 23.
1603. Gesner. "'The water dog for taking birds which hunts in the water,' says Caius, '...in English a water spagnelle.'" Very reminiscent of Markham's illustration (1621) which forms the headpiece for Main Menu, but minus the bird. Ash, plate 31.
1653. Andreas Cirino, De Natura et Solertia Canum. "'Hispanorum aquatice canes commendantur apud Caium.'" Water Spaniel in England. Reminiscent of Gesner's (1603) image and Markham's (1621) image, but the dog is not yet lion-clipped for warm weather. Ash, plate 31.
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Cirino
1663. Book of Beasts (author unknown). Stocky lion-clipped Poodle lying down with back to viewer, gazing back over shoulder. Ash, plate 42.
NB. Johan Ridinger (1698-1767). "Johan Ridinger, who lived between 1698 to 1767, drew and described a German Sporting Dog which he calls a Budel, and which is without question Froschower's Wasserhund, and the Barbet in France." Hoyt, p. 24.
1749. Fleming, Hans Fredrich von. The Complete Hunter. "...chapter called 'Concerning the Water Dog'. I quote-- 'The shepherds have small or medium driving dogs which have shaggy hair, (they get them from the Northern Countries). Such Budels are now covered with a Hound, so the offspring fall with long ears and shaggy hair. In order that they swim better their thick hair is taken off, a good beard and eyebrows remain, and the tail is docked. Because of their beard, the French call them (barbe) Barbet. These Water dogs from the gray color of the Shepherd and the red hair of the Hound are mostly brown, though often white with brown spots, or even black. They are brisk and faithful, they hunt gladly, and they like by nature to swim. They retrieve well in reed field and fast rivers: They also hunt out foxes, otters, and wild cats from the reeds. Such Water Budel is of great service to the Fowler.'" Hoyt, p. 24.
1749-1789. Georges Louis Leclerc, compte de Buffon (1707-88) published the numerous volumes of his Histoire Naturelle Générale et Particuliè during the 40 years from 1749. Barr's Buffon (1792) was an English edition, from which Ash (plate 54) re-published a Water-dog (parti-coloured with moderate curly-coat--clipped pom-pon!--standing alertly in front of rushes); also note: Lion-Dog (smallish lion-clipped dog with full tail, standing in front of gate). Hoyt (p. 24) quotes as follows from Buffon: "'The Barbet and Spaniel originated in Spain and Barbarie. There, nearly all the animals have long fine coats because of the climate. They were brought to England where they changed color from white to black, and have become hunting and pet dogs. The only difference between the Barbet and the Spaniel is that the Barbet with his thick coat, long and curly, goes into the water more readily than the Spaniel which has a sleek and less dense coat.'" Huon Mallalieu, "Sentries and Stalwarts," Country Life, 11 June 1998, pp. 146-151, includes Buffon's engravings of Le Chien Lion (Löwchen), standing on top of a balustrade, and Le Grand Barbet, a flipped version of the image at left, which is reminiscent of Bewick's Water Dog, which forms the headpiece for Ships' and/or fishermen's dogs, fox "hound", draft/sled dogs, etc.. Mallalieu quotes Rawdon Lee (1894; see below): Buffon was "'one of the most unreliable of naturalists.' The long-forgotten Rawdon Lee, however, was a yapping chihuaha to Buffon's mastiff...."
1798. Buffon. Histoire Naturelle. In this edition, Le Bichon and Le chien Lion (approximately same size, standing freely, gazing at viewer); Le Grand Barbet: reminiscent of Bewick's illustration, which forms the headpiece for Ships'.... Ash, plate 40.
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Leclerc (Comte de Buffon): Complete Works (in French)
Also see this digital translation on line as of 10 August 2011: Barr's Buffon
1800 [-05]. Sydenham Teak Edwards, Cynographia Britannica; consisting of coloured engravings of the various breeds of dogs existing in Great Britain, drawn and coloured from the life, with observations on their properties and uses. "The Poodle" depicts a larger parti-coloured water-dog-type with an intact tail (dog reminiscent of Youatt's illustration which is the headpiece for this section) standing facing left, and a smaller dark dog, of a more modern type, in a slight play-bow, with a moderately-cropped tail and wearing the historically-correct Continental, including a tail-pom, facing right. (This image is available, as of 16 April 2001, at BIGgallery.com, 2708 Hawthorne Place, Nashville, TN 37212, http://biggallery.com for $US15., item AA027044, 14 x 11.5".) Here's a genealogical chart dated 1805 by its recent (5/2000) seller and which we're sufficiently confident comes from Edwards to park it here for the moment. The buyer, GL (who helped to jump-start the Poodle History Project's fine arts section, "Gordon's Poodle Visuals") writes: "Well, what I found interesting is that there are three sizes of Poodles given: Standard = Water Dog; Miniature = Small Water Dog; Toy = Shock Dog or Toy Dog. And that they are shown as being directly related with the last two being bred with the Spaniel to reduce the size. Now the MP has always been regarded as a 'modern' breed. This chart seems to confirm that the three sizes have always co-existed." It's obvious that we haven't yet thoroughly shaken down Edwards' famous book. If you're in the British Library, this is shelfmark 37.f.1.; please take a look for the Poodle History Project.
1803. [William Taplin] The sportsman's cabinet; or, a correct delineation of the various dogs used in the sports of the field....Consisting of a series of engravings...from original paintings, taken from life...to which is added a scientific disquisition...by a "Veteran Sportsman" (pseud.). (London: 1803-4), 2 vols.
Taplin's text is peculiarly elusive--a rare book and not a size to Xerox easily--but has been quoted extensively and we're able to take advantage of that fact: "'The particular breed of dog passing under...[the denomination Water-dog] differs materially from the...Water-spaniel, which distinction will be more fully explained in the course of the work when we come to that head. The Water-dog, of which an exact representation is given from the life [see ...Visuals, Reinagle, Water Dog] is of so little general use that the breed is but little promoted, unless upon the sea-coast, and in such other situations as are most likely to render their qualifications and propensities of some utility.... These dogs are exceedingly singular in their appearance, and most probably derive their origin from the Greenland dog, blended with some peculiar race of our own.... Although these dogs are to be seen of almost all colours and equally well-bred, yet the jet-black with white feet stand highest in estimation; the most uniform in shape and make exceed in size the standard of mediocrity, and are strong in proportion to their formation. The head is rather round; the nose short; the ears broad, long, and pendulous; his eyes full, lively, and solicitously attracting; his neck thick and short; his shoulders broad; his legs straight; his hind-quarters round and firm; his pasterns strong, and dew-clawed; his fore-feet long, but round; with his hair adhering to the body in natural, elastic, short curls, neither loose, long, or shaggy; the former being considered indicative of constitutional strength, the latter of constitutional weakness, or hereditary debility.... The Water-dog even in puppyhood displays an eager desire to be employed in offices of domestic amusement.'" quoted in: Vero Shaw, The Illustrated Book of the Dog (London: 1879-1881), "The Poodle or Water-Dog", reprinted in Poodle Variety, January 1987, p. 111.
For an additional chunk of Taplin's text, describing waterfowling for down near the "Northern Coast", see Duck dogs--guns, Taplin.
See a digital copy of The Sportsman's Cabinet as of 8 August 2011.
1803. Coxe, William. Account of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and America to which are added the conquest of Siberia and the history of the transactions and commerce between Russia and China (London, 1803), p. 471: "...the Chinese also give a great price for hounds, grey-hounds, barbets, and dogs for hunting wild boars..."
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Coxe
1809 (1804?). William Nicholson (1753-1815). British Encyclopedia; or, Dictioniary of arts and sciences, comprising an accurate and popular view of the present improved state of human knowledge. Illustrated with elegant engravings, by Messrs. Lowry and Scott. (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme..., 1809). 6 v., plates, diagrams. "'The large rough Water Dog Canis Avarius Aquaticus. Grand Barbet of Buffon; Budel of Ridinger, a variety distinguished by its curly coat, and useful in hunting Water Fowl.'" Hoyt, p. 24, dates this reference 1804, which may be due to Nicholson's various volumes having been published separately over a period of time; this encylopedia was republished in 1819 and also in an American edition. Illustration page "labelled Class I Mammalia, Order III Ferae, Genus XV Canis.... There are seven breeds depicted, the final two of which are poodles. One is a white mini in a sort of lion clip coming out of the water with a stick in its mouth. The other is much larger, unclipped undocked black and white standard. The caption reads '6. Small Barbet - 7. Grand Barbet of Water Dog.' On the bottom it says 'Published as the Act directs Feb 1st 1804 by Longman and Rees, Paternoster Row.'" (SG, February 2000).
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Nicholson
1820. Donovan, Edward (1768-1837). The Natural History of British Quadrupeds (1820): [The great water dog] "The superior qualities of this breed of dogs consist in the readiness with which on all occasions it takes to the water, where it swims with facility, and has been known at times to render essential service in saving shipwrecked mariners. It is a kind of dog seldom cultivated except upon the seacoasts, where its merits are best understood, and its services most likely to prove acceptable.
"The variety held in greatest estimation is that in which the black predominates, the face and feet only being white: there is besides this a pied variety, in which the white appears more conspicuously than the black. Sometimes also instead of black the darker patches are of a liver colour, but the dogs of this kind are the least approved of the three. An improvement has been lately made in the breed by crossing this kind with the Newfoundland dog, and as might have been anticipated, a very serviceable water dog has been the offspring.
"The water spaniel, as is well known, is an excellent attendant upon the sportsman in exploring the inland fens and marshes, in quest of water-fowl; the great waterdog must not be confounded with that animal: it is larger, and better able to bear fatigue, and is most frequently employed by the sportsman in rambles among the rocks, upon the sea-shore, in quest of sea-fowl; and is in particular valuable in traversing the little marshy islands which these birds frequent. Puffins are usually run down by dogs of this kind, and no animal can be more usefully employed in rouzing the hosts of soland geese, gulls, and other sea birds which it is the object of the sportsman to kill as they rise upon the wing. It need be scarcely added that this kind of dog is the smugglerŐs faithful servant: he, who under the protection of the midnight darkness, seeks the vesselŐs side, and towing the floating booty of kegs and half ankers which his master has committed purposely to the waves, conveys them through the beating surf and delivers them in silence to the accomplice in waiting to receive the cargo upon the shore."
For a brief biography of Donovan, see Wikipedia, Donovan.... Donovan presents this illustration of the water-spaniel which is indeed very different from the illustrations of the British water-dogs with which we're familiar. However, the work of the water dog in waterfowling was similar to that which then and now we'd assign to spaniels and perhaps for this reason the terms water-dog and water-spaniel were used interchangeably (perhaps to correct which, Donovan emphasized their separation). For the purpose of the Poodle History Project, we include written references to water spaniels and water dogs from this era, and eschew the more obviously-irrelevant images.
1820. Scott. The Sportsman's Repository; 1820 Comprising a series of highly-finished engravings, representing the horse and the dog... accompanied with a historical and systematic description of the different species of each, their appropriate uses, management, and improvement..." By the author of British Field Sports i.e. John Lawrence. (London: 1920) 'The Water Dog is of far longer standing than the Spaniel, for we imported our Spaniels from the Southern part of Europe. Yet, on the Northern parts of the Continent, they have Water Dogs like ours which in truth have a foreign appearance. Yet we apprehend the derivation of the latter from Greenland to be far fetched for those dogs have the general features of the fox which is so opposite to any in the Water Dog which bears the external characteristic of the Spaniel. Yet the Water Dog, long adopted in this country, indicates some cross alien to the Spaniel. It is of considerable strength and courage without the softness of the Spaniel. It has equal sagacity of nose, superior activity and power, and an aptitude to learn those manoeuvers and tricks which render the dog useful and amusing to man. Many of the learned dogs are of this race, and the feats they perform are almost miraculous.'" Hoyt, p. 26.
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Scott
Because (a) these books were written before the concepts inherent in dog shows (type, style, etc.) were hardened (see Show dogs) and because (b) the time of writing was lenient about inclusion of lightly-related information and anecdotes, and because (c) much information--since lost--was then within living memory, the various Victorian and Edwardian popular encyclopedias and tomes contain much of interest to the Poodle History Project. Because the authors take information from one another, one can trace development--sometimes evidently into the realm of fantasy--of one theme or another. However, these texts are particularly useful in understanding the transition of the Poodle from the world's premier performance breed, to one among several of the world's premier performance breeds, perceived to be, for at least a century, in danger of transformation into a coat-rack. Where possible, we'll quote at length.
T.B. Johnson, The Sportsman's Cyclopedia; being an elucidation of the science and practice of the field, the turf, and the sod; or, in other words, the scientific operations of the chase, the course, and the stream; and of all those diversions and amusements which have uniformly marked the character of the inhabitants of these islands; and which are so ardently cherished, and so extensively pursued, by the present generation, comprehending the natural history of all those animals which constitute the objects of pursuit, accompanied with illustrative anecdotes [capitals deleted, ed.]. (London: 1831). NB: At Johnson's time of writing, just before the dawn of the Victorian era, the Labrador Retriever had recently established himself as an excellent duck dog (see ...guns), and therefore:
"WATER SPANIEL. The dog which passes under the denomination of the water spaniel is not so common as formerly. He is generally of the middle size, with a rough curly coat, and in fact too well known to need a particular description. In wild-fowl shooting, they are useful in fetching the killed or wounded bird out of the water; and it is in matters of this sort that they are principally employed."
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Johnson
Charles Hamilton Smith, Dogs, 2 vols (Edinburgh: Lizars, 1839; 1840), volumes 9 and 10 in William Jardine's series The Naturalist's Library (Mammalia). Smith refers to ancient Roman images of water-dogs; we haven't yet caught up with a significant quantity of these. Meanwhile, please see Ash (1927) below. Charles Hamilton Smith (1776-1859) was a soldier, naturalist and antiquary; his papers are listed on the National Register of Archives (UK) website in several sites according to his several interests. A Poodle History Project volunteer wishing to find ancient Roman images of water dogs (evidently invisible to today's antiquaries perhaps because modern eyes are conditioned by the force-drier and electric clippers, and the various distortions and divisions arising from the dog show movement in the fourth quarter of the 19th century), might hit pay-dirt searching through Smith's papers.
The following excerpt, credited to Lt.-Col. Charles Hamilton Smith, comes from "The Poodle and his History", by Nellie Dagois, The Illustrated Kennel News, 15(?) December 1912: "'The Water Dog. This race of dogs has the head rather large and round, the cerebral space more developed than in any other canine, the frontal sinus expanded, the ears long, the legs rather short, and the body compact; the hair over every part of the animal long, curly, black, or white and black, sometimes rufous; height at the shoulder from 18 ins. to 20 ins. The water-dog, or Poodle of the Germans, is in its most perfect state not British race, but rose into favour first in Germany, and during the revolutionary wars was carried by the troops into France, and only in the latter campaigns became familiar to the British in Spain and the Netherlands. The coarser, crisper-haired water-dog was, indeed, long known to the middle classes of England, and to fishermen on the north-eastern coast and professional water-fowl shooters; he was occasionally also brought to the environs of London, in order to afford the brutal sport of hunting and worrying to death domestic ducks placed in ponds for that purpose. No dog is more intelligent or attached to his master; none like the poodle can trace and find lost property with more certainty and perseverance. Several instances are on record of their remaining on the field of battle by the dead bodies of their masters, and Mr. Bell relates an anecdote of one who perceived his owner had dropped a gold coin, and watched it so carefully that he even refused food until the money was recovered.'"
See: Charlemagne until 1890 (or so): Lizars, William Home (1788-1859). Plate #20 in Charles Hamilton Smith's two volume Dogs (Edinburgh: Lizars, 1839; 1840), volumes 9 and 10 in William Jardine's series The Naturalist's Library (Mammalia). Bichon-esque curly small white dog stands beside a dog house in front of which sits a bulldog.
Charles Knight, The Pictorial Museum of Animated Nature (London: 1844), p. 198, col. 2: "Of the races with pendant ears and a moderately lengthened muzzle, we may first advert to the spaniels, among which we include the pure setter and the rough water-dog. These dogs are remarkable for intelligence, docility, and their affectionate disposition. The fur is long and silky, sometimes curled or crisped, the ears are large and pendent, and the expression of the countenance is spirited, yet gentle and pleasing. All possess excellent scent, especially the setter, formerly so valued by the sportsman.
"The water-spaniel is extremely useful to persons engaged in the pursuit of water-fowl; it swims well, is very hardy, and is an excellent retriever.... The French poodle may be referred to the spaniels: it appears to be very nearly allied to the rough water-dog figured by Bewick [see headpiece of Ships...], the 'grand barbet' of Buffon, and of which there is a smaller variety termed 'le petit barbet.' The rough water-dog is a most intelligent animal; it is robustly made, and covered universally with deep curly hair; it exceeds the water-spaniel in size and strength, but has the same aquatic habits and docility. It is much used as a retriever by the shooters of water-fowl."
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Knight
William Youatt, The Dog (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1848; first published: London, 1845). Poodle: pp. 48-9; Barbet: pp. 49-50. Youatt categorizes the Poodle and Barbet among the spaniels.
Here is a digital copy of Youatt as of 8 August 2011.
Richardson, H.D., Dogs: Their Origins and Varieties, Directions to Their General Management and Simple Instruction as to Their Treatment Under Disease (Dublin: James McGlashan; London: Orr; Edinburgh: Fraser & Co. 1847). When he published this slender book, which stayed in print for decades, Richardson was also author of The Natural History of the Irish Fossil Deer and Domestic Fowl and "etc. etc." By this we may infer that this book was, for Richardson, a pot-boiler (as was, incidentally, Hungers Prevention for Markham see Markham in the Poodle History Project's Duck dogs -- guns section) and perhaps because of that the author's level of interest is mecurial and he is heavily dependent upon anecdote. Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: start at page 98.
George Frederick Pardon ("author of The Faces in the Fire etc. etc."), Dogs: Sagacity, Instinct, and Uses with Descriptions of their Several Varieties, illustrated by Harrison Weir (London: Blackwood, 1857). This is a "chapter book" (of 300-plus pages!), aimed at "young readers" and interesting for anchoring (with a date/place of publication) various suppositions and fantastic (and more-likely) anecdotes.
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Pardon
Bénédict-Henry Révoil, Histoire...des Chiens... (Paris: 1867) presents the illustration, "Chien Barbet" (p. 203), which forms the headpiece for this section; this was also used by Youatt, captioned: "The Poodle" (1886); this is a typical instance of the Victorian encyclopedists deriving information--and even lifting entire chunks of prose--from one another). Révoil categorizes (chapter vii, pp. 175-204) pointers, setters, spaniels, retrievers, water spaniels, etc. as "Chiens d'arrêt" (dogs which stop, i.e. pointers); he wittily remarks in a footnote (p. 198) on the phenomenon of English specialist breeds--pointers, setters, retrievers, etc.: "Nous autres sportsmen français, nous trouvons avec certaine raison que cela fait deux domestiques au lieu d'un."
Please see Clements (1878), below, for a critical analysis of Révoil's remarks about the Poodle; however--from our own distance of time and place--Révoil's appear a valiant attempt to pioneer definitions of breeds and their functions.
Summary, pp. 202-4: "Le chien canne" otherwise called barbet in France, or poodle in English, (lists) unattractive qualities of appearance therefore perfect illustration of proverb that one mustn't judge from appearances. Faithful, so intelligent can play dominoes or cards, water is his element, swims with great facility, sailors embarked always with a barbet, to retrieve whatever happened to fall into the water, and to retrieve waterfowl which might be shot. Can get very dirty; if not to be covered with vermin and become sick as a result of the invasion, must comb frequently, clip the paws, the muzzle, and at the base of the tail... At Jadis, in Denmark, and in the Pièdmont (these dogs are) employed in marsh-hunting. 16th century: duck hunting; from this comes the sobriquet canne, caniche; but in the 19th century this use has ceased... Remarks re Munito; in 1829 in London two barbets, sitting gravely at table, played cards... barbets dancing; clowns in circuses; etc.
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Revoil (in French)
Le baron Dunoyer de Noirmont, Histoire de la Chasse en France depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu'a la Révolution (Paris: vol. 1: 1867; vols. 2 & 3: 1868). This is a wonderful book, with enough footnotes to satisfy even the editor of the Poodle History Project! As of 22 May 1997, summarization of this text is underway.
Here's a digital copy of the three volumes on line as of 10 August 2011: Dunoyer, vol. I (in French), Dunoyer, vol. II (in French) and Dunoyer, vol. III (in French).
Idstone (Thomas Pierce, "of The Field"--a periodical), The Idstone Papers (1872), and The Dog (London, Paris, NY: 1872; 6th edition 189?]. We look forward to reading Idstone; meanwhile, please see Ash (1927), below.
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Idstone
H. de la Blanchère, Les Chiens de Chasse. Races Français. Races Anglaises. Chenils. Élevage et dressage. Maladies. Traitement allopathique et homoeopathique. (Paris, 1875).
Lewis Clement, first editor (1882) of Shooting Times, wrote an appendix, under the pseudonymn "Wildfowler", about the Poodle for the second edition of Dogs of the British Islands by "Stonehenge" (pseud. J.H. Walsh, editor of The Field) (London: 1878).
In relation to Walsh: "There were no breed clubs, no breed standards, no stud books (except for some of the Hunt Masters records for Foxhounds) and no national kennel clubs until about 125 years ago when The Kennel Club was organized in London.... It was a judge at the earliest orthodox dog show which was held at Newcastle in 1859 who wrote and published the first breed standards as an aid in judging and a goal for breeders. This was the famous Dr. John Henry Walsh (1810-88), who is perhaps better known by his pseudonymn 'Stonehenge.' While privately written, their merit was quickly recognized and many eventually were adopted by the Kennel Club as official standards until later 'improved' or revised." (Francis P. Fretwell, "200-Year Old 'Poodle'...", Poodle Variety, February/March 1996, p. 16).
Under the pseudonymn "Snapshot", Clement had published an eye-witness account of shooting over one of these Poodles, "Duck Decoying in France [in the Abbéville marshes near Amiens]" (Baily's Magazine, January 1874, pp. 351-7), which is presented in its entirety in ...guns. His entry in Dogs of the British Islands is of particular interest because, at his time of writing, the breed was poised at a watershed.
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: "Wildfowler" in "Stonehenge" 4th ed., in Appendix
Also see this digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: "Snapshot" (Clement) in Baily's Magazine
Hugh Dalziel, British Dogs (London: The Bazaar Office, 1879), section on the Poodle reprinted in Poodle Review, May/June 1997, pp. 182-8. (NB: There's a dilemma in relation to bibliographical data about this book. Poodle Review cites 1889; World Catalogue cites 1879; Dalziel, as quoted in Poodle Review, recollects events in 1879 and 1880, and refers to the first edition of the book. We tentatively conclude that the book was first published in 1879; Poodle Variety quoted from a second, or later, edition, published in 1889; from a volume other than the first.)
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Dalziel
The Illustrated Book of the Dog (London: 1879-1881). "With over 600 pages and more than 200 engravings and drawings, it was the most ambitious and successful dog book published up to that time. PV is pleased to present in its entirety the chapter devoted to Poodles." Poodle Variety, January 1987, pp. 111-122. For Shaw's excerpt from Taplin (1803), see above; Shaw quotes extensively from a contemporary, Mr. T.H. Joyce, "an ardent admirer of the breed" and adds his own remarks, for which, please "click on the blue".
See a digital copy of Shaw as of 8 August 2011.
Edward Jesse Anecdotes of Dogs (London: George Bell & Sons, 1884), reprinted in Poodle Review, May/June 1998, pp. 148-160. Jesse over-stretches our credulity (in the Clever Hans tradition) while nevertheless exhaustively describing the mundane. He's useful because some of his anecdotes can be traced to previous sources, while yet others appear here apparently for the first time, and are subsequently repeated, for example, in Lydia Hopkins, The Complete Poodle 3rd edition (NY: Howell, 1962).
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Jesse
W. R. Furness, "The Poodle", G.O. Shields ("Coquina"), The American Book of the Dog (Chicago; NY: Rand, McNally, 1891), pp. 615-28. An edited portion of this chapter was reprinted in Poodles in America, 1929-1959, vol. 1, William H. Ivens, Jr., ed. (Doylestown, PA (?): Poodle Club of America, 1960), pp. 14-6.
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Furness (in Shields)
Count Henry van Bylandt (Compte Henri de Bylandt; H.A. graff van Bylandt, 1860-1943), a Dutch aristocrat who moved to Belgium during the latter half of the 1890's but remained Dutch, was among the first prominent and popular international dog show judges, and is considered "the father of the breed standard."
His Raspuntenboek van de meest bekende hondenrassen-- Standard Book of the best known Dog Breeds-- (Maarssen: Cynophilia, 1894), 404 pp., 400 illustrations, including standards of over 100 breeds, was first published in Dutch by the Dutch Kennel Club "Cynophilia" in 1894, and therefore has since been known as the Cynophilia Standard Book of Purebred Dogs.
In accordance with demand especially by Francophones, a second, much expanded, French-language edition was was published in Brussels in 1897: Les Races de Chiens (1160 pp; 300 breeds; 1392 illustrations showing 2064 dogs).
Further demand by Anglophones led to publication of the third edition: Dogs of all Nations: their varieties, characteristics, points, etc. (London: 1904) 2 vols. 789, 798 pp.; 2300 illustrations showing 4100 dogs; I: Sporting dogs; II: Terriers and non-sporting dogs; text in English, French, German & Dutch. It seems there was a second printing in 1905. In 1994, this third edition was republished (Kerberos: Neerijnen, The Netherlands; ISBN 90 5360 006 X) in a facsimile edition, with the exceptions that the page size was very moderately reduced, and certain illustrations citations were meticulously completed. For more about Bylandt and including links to all the Poodle-relevant pages from the 1994 facsimile edition, go to: Breed Standards.
Rawdon B. Lee, A History and Description of the Modern Dog (Non-Sporting Division) (London: 1894). At the time of publication, Lee was kennel editor of The Field, author of the histories of The Fox Terrier and The Collie. He devotes the entirety of chapter vii (pp. 161-189), to a thorough, if meandering, discussion of the Poodle.
Here's a digital copy on line as of 10 August 2011: Lee
Ludwig Beckmann, Rassen der Hundes (Brannschweig, 1895), dritte gruppe, Hirtenhunde und Pudel; pudel, pp. 94-8. We await summarization.
Here are digital copies on line as of 10 August 2011: Beckmann (in German)and Beckmann (in German)
James Watson, The Dog Book. A popular history of the dog, with practical information as to care and management of house, kennel, and exhibition dogs; and descriptions of all the important breeds. (New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1906, first published in parts in 1905). Watson, Ash, and Leighton are described as "reliable...[and] sadly overlooked" by Col. David Hancock, "Attributing the dog", Dogs in Canada, December 2005, p. 23, and we plan to remedy this in relation to Watson at our earliest opportunity.
Here's a digital copy ofWatson as of 8 August 2011.
Robert Leighton, The New Book of the Dog: a comprehensive natural history of British dogs and their foreign relatives, with chapters on law, breeding, kennel management, and veterinary treatment ... Illustrated with twenty-one coloured plates and numerous photographic portraits of famous dogs. (Cassell & Co.: London, 1907). Watson, Ash, and Leighton are described as "reliable...[and] sadly overlooked" by Col. David Hancock, "Attributing the dog", Dogs in Canada, December 2005, p. 23, and we plan to remedy this in relation to Leighton at our earliest opportunity.
Here's a digital copy of Leighton as of 8 August 2011.
Der Deutsche Pudel, publication of the German Poodle Clubs (Munich: 1907). This is the second publication of the German Poodle Clubs (the first has evidently perished). The attached summary/translation of pages 1-16 is not intended to be a literal translation, but rather a means of easy access to the meaning of the text for those of us who lack German. Many thanks to Hans Brunotte who forwarded this to the Poodle History Project in July, 1997.
Leonard W. Crouch, LL.B., "The Poodle", chapter xii, vol. 1, Cassel's New Book of the Dog, by Robert Leighton (London, NY: Cassel, 1912; first published as The New Book of the Dog, Cassel, 1907); reprinted in Poodle Variety, October/November 1994 - December/January 1995, pp. 174-180.
Crouch's wife, "Mrs. L. W. Crouch" owned the Orchard kennels; query: was the author Mrs. Crouch? "Mrs. L.W. Crouch mentions in her chapter on the Poodle in Robert Leighton's The New Book of the Dog, 1907," states Gerald Massey in "The Poodle in Early Art and Literature", P. Howard Price, The Miniature Poodle Handbook (London: Nicholson & Watson, 1960), chapter 2, pp. 19-20.
Whichever Crouch--husband or wife--wrote the text, it is the final word about Poodles from the English Edwardian era, and Crouch's description is unequivocally from this side of the watershed. There is no indication that Crouch has referred (unlike Clements a generation before) to recent German or French sources, which bears out George Macaulay Trevelyan's remarks about English Edwardian complacency in his section "Complacency Shaken", English Social History (London: 1942), pp. 556-8.
Walter Esplin Mason (1867- ), Dogs of all Nations (San Franciso: Hicks Judd, Co., 1915). 144 p. illus. 23 cm. This is a catalogue for an exhibition of that name at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition 1915, which, of course, lifts the title of the English edition (1904) of Bylandt's exhaustive work (see 1897, above). In his preface the author thanks Stonehenge, Bylandt, Theo. Marples, and, peculiarly, Dr. Caius. Dogs organized by nationality; the Poodle is slotted among the French dogs; two Standards (p.55), one corded, one in Continental; a white Toy (p. 56); parti-colour Barbet (p. 44).See a digital copy of Mason as of 8 August 2011.
Edward C. Ash, author of Dogs: Their History and Development (London: Benn; Boston: HM Co., 1927), is not an Edwardian. However, his book (vol. 1) fits very neatly at the end of this section, particularly because he attempts a summary of sources.
Jeancourt-Galignani, Mad. Les Caniches (Paris, 1958). One of the great Poodle-books: fat, rich, information-packed, and soundly opinionated. If you're a Francophone, doubtless you are already familiar with this book, from which we gleaned Poodle-history items posted elsewhere in the Poodle History Project. If you are a Poodle-loving Anglophone, ready to take wing from your Grade Ten French grammar, or Lettres de mon moulin is making it rain in your heart exactly as it's raining in the city, this is for you!
Engler, Rosa, Pudel (Cham: Müller Rüschlikon, 1995). This book was published after 1965, of course; we list it here to refer you to its German/French/English bibliography (p. 119), and also to remind readers of the crib accessible from the Poodle History Project's Index page (penultimate paragraph).
Thum, Hans, Mein Freund der Pudel (Munich, 1963).
The headpiece for this section is taken from: William Youatt, The Dog (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1848; first published: London, 1845), p. 48. Reprinted in Bénédict-Henry Révoil, Histoire...des Chiens... (Paris: 1867) p. 203.
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